Twitter card is ok, but image doesn't show


Example URL:
Validation: passed
Tests with cUrl: 1) SSL ok 2) 0 HTTP errors 3) robots.txt does allow Twitterbot 4) no server-side limitations
Image size: less than 1Mb, tested with different formats, same results.
Site’s hosted on my VPS on Digital Ocean.

Update: it works now. You can close this thread.