Short URL's


#1

I’m new to the Twitter API and I found a handy PHP class. The only thing it doesn’t do is schorten my URL’s. Could you guys tell where I need te put the short_url_length and short_url_length_https lines ? I really don’t know where I tried to figure it out but het code didn’t make much sense to me. The posting itself works perfect.
Here’s the class:

class tmhOAuth {
  /**
* Creates a new tmhOAuth object
*
* @param string $config, the configuration to use for this request
*/
  function __construct($config) {
    $this->params = array();
    $this->auto_fixed_time = false;

    // for ease of testing
    if (file_exists(dirname(__FILE__).'/_account.php')) {
      include '_account.php';
      if (isset($_accounts) && $config['consumer_key'] == 'YOUR_CONSUMER_KEY') :
        if ($config['user_token'] == 'A_USER_TOKEN')
          $config = array_merge($config, $_accounts['test_with_user']);
        else
          $config = array_merge($config, $_accounts['test']);
      endif;
    }

    // default configuration options
    $this->config = array_merge(
      array(
        'consumer_key' => 'sObah5uB0vedNmJxj2GOew',
        'consumer_secret' => 'xxxxx',
        'user_token' => '381705902-sHTK37nrSyJs16rrNoAcvDpdyu8GL2y9JnLHBta0',
        'user_secret' => 'xxxx',
        'use_ssl' => true,
        'host' => 'api.twitter.com',
        'debug' => false,
        'force_nonce' => false,
        'nonce' => false, // used for checking signatures. leave as false for auto
        'force_timestamp' => false,
        'timestamp' => false, // used for checking signatures. leave as false for auto
        'oauth_version' => '1.0',

        // you probably don't want to change any of these curl values
        'curl_connecttimeout' => 30,
        'curl_timeout' => 10,
        // for security you may want to set this to TRUE. If you do you need
        // to install the servers certificate in your local certificate store.
        'curl_ssl_verifypeer' => false,
        'curl_followlocation' => false, // whether to follow redirects or not

        // streaming API
        'is_streaming' => false,
        'streaming_eol' => "\r\n",
        'streaming_metrics_interval' => 60,
      ),
      $config
    );
  }

  /**
* Generates a random OAuth nonce.
* If 'force_nonce' is true a nonce is not generated and the value in the configuration will be retained.
*
* @param string $length how many characters the nonce should be before MD5 hashing. default 12
* @param string $include_time whether to include time at the beginning of the nonce. default true
* @return void
*/
  private function create_nonce($length=12, $include_time=true) {
    if ($this->config['force_nonce'] == false) {
      $sequence = array_merge(range(0,9), range('A','Z'), range('a','z'));
      $length = $length > count($sequence) ? count($sequence) : $length;
      shuffle($sequence);
      $this->config['nonce'] = md5(substr(microtime() . implode($sequence), 0, $length));
    }
  }

  /**
* Generates a timestamp.
* If 'force_timestamp' is true a nonce is not generated and the value in the configuration will be retained.
*
* @return void
*/
  private function create_timestamp() {
    $this->config['timestamp'] = ($this->config['force_timestamp'] == false ? time() : $this->config['timestamp']);
  }

  /**
* Encodes the string or array passed in a way compatible with OAuth.
* If an array is passed each array value will will be encoded.
*
* @param mixed $data the scalar or array to encode
* @return $data encoded in a way compatible with OAuth
*/
  private function safe_encode($data) {
    if (is_array($data)) {
      return array_map(array($this, 'safe_encode'), $data);
    } else if (is_scalar($data)) {
      return str_ireplace(
        array('+', '%7E'),
        array(' ', '~'),
        rawurlencode($data)
      );
    } else {
      return '';
    }
  }

  /**
* Decodes the string or array from its URL encoded form
* If an array is passed each array value will will be decoded.
*
* @param mixed $data the scalar or array to decode
* @return $data decoded from the URL encoded form
*/
  private function safe_decode($data) {
    if (is_array($data)) {
      return array_map(array($this, 'safe_decode'), $data);
    } else if (is_scalar($data)) {
      return rawurldecode($data);
    } else {
      return '';
    }
  }

  /**
* Returns an array of the standard OAuth parameters.
*
* @return array all required OAuth parameters, safely encoded
*/
  private function get_defaults() {
    $defaults = array(
      'oauth_version' => $this->config['oauth_version'],
      'oauth_nonce' => $this->config['nonce'],
      'oauth_timestamp' => $this->config['timestamp'],
      'oauth_consumer_key' => $this->config['consumer_key'],
      'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1',
    );

    // include the user token if it exists
    if ( $this->config['user_token'] )
      $defaults['oauth_token'] = $this->config['user_token'];

    // safely encode
    foreach ($defaults as $k => $v) {
      $_defaults[$this->safe_encode($k)] = $this->safe_encode($v);
    }

    return $_defaults;
  }

  /**
* Extracts and decodes OAuth parameters from the passed string
*
* @param string $body the response body from an OAuth flow method
* @return array the response body safely decoded to an array of key => values
*/
  function extract_params($body) {
    $kvs = explode('&', $body);
    $decoded = array();
    foreach ($kvs as $kv) {
      $kv = explode('=', $kv, 2);
      $kv[0] = $this->safe_decode($kv[0]);
      $kv[1] = $this->safe_decode($kv[1]);
      $decoded[$kv[0]] = $kv[1];
    }
    return $decoded;
  }

  /**
* Prepares the HTTP method for use in the base string by converting it to
* uppercase.
*
* @param string $method an HTTP method such as GET or POST
* @return void value is stored to a class variable
* @author themattharris
*/
  private function prepare_method($method) {
    $this->method = strtoupper($method);
  }

  /**
* Prepares the URL for use in the base string by ripping it apart and
* reconstructing it.
*
* @param string $url the request URL
* @return void value is stored to a class variable
* @author themattharris
*/
  private function prepare_url($url) {
    $parts = parse_url($url);

    $port = @$parts['port'];
    $scheme = $parts['scheme'];
    $host = $parts['host'];
    $path = @$parts['path'];

    $port or $port = ($scheme == 'https') ? '443' : '80';

    if (($scheme == 'https' && $port != '443')
        || ($scheme == 'http' && $port != '80')) {
      $host = "$host:$port";
    }
    $this->url = "$scheme://$host$path";
  }

  /**
* Prepares all parameters for the base string and request.
* Multipart parameters are ignored as they are not defined in the specification,
* all other types of parameter are encoded for compatibility with OAuth.
*
* @param array $params the parameters for the request
* @return void prepared values are stored in class variables
*/
  private function prepare_params($params) {
    // do not encode multipart parameters, leave them alone
    if ($this->config['multipart']) {
      $this->request_params = $params;
      $params = array();
    }

    // signing parameters are request parameters + OAuth default parameters
    $this->signing_params = array_merge($this->get_defaults(), (array)$params);

    // Remove oauth_signature if present
    // Ref: Spec: 9.1.1 ("The oauth_signature parameter MUST be excluded.")
    if (isset($this->signing_params['oauth_signature'])) {
      unset($this->signing_params['oauth_signature']);
    }

    // Parameters are sorted by name, using lexicographical byte value ordering.
    // Ref: Spec: 9.1.1 (1)
    uksort($this->signing_params, 'strcmp');

    // encode. Also sort the signed parameters from the POST parameters
    foreach ($this->signing_params as $k => $v) {
      $k = $this->safe_encode($k);
      $v = $this->safe_encode($v);
      $_signing_params[$k] = $v;
      $kv[] = "{$k}={$v}";
    }

    // auth params = the default oauth params which are present in our collection of signing params
    $this->auth_params = array_intersect_key($this->get_defaults(), $_signing_params);
    if (isset($_signing_params['oauth_callback'])) {
      $this->auth_params['oauth_callback'] = $_signing_params['oauth_callback'];
      unset($_signing_params['oauth_callback']);
    }

    // request_params is already set if we're doing multipart, if not we need to set them now
    if ( ! $this->config['multipart'])
      $this->request_params = array_diff_key($_signing_params, $this->get_defaults());

    // create the parameter part of the base string
    $this->signing_params = implode('&', $kv);
  }

  /**
* Prepares the OAuth signing key
*
* @return void prepared signing key is stored in a class variables
*/
  private function prepare_signing_key() {
    $this->signing_key = $this->safe_encode($this->config['consumer_secret']) . '&' . $this->safe_encode($this->config['user_secret']);
  }

  /**
* Prepare the base string.
* Ref: Spec: 9.1.3 ("Concatenate Request Elements")
*
* @return void prepared base string is stored in a class variables
*/
  private function prepare_base_string() {
    $base = array(
      $this->method,
      $this->url,
      $this->signing_params
    );
    $this->base_string = implode('&', $this->safe_encode($base));
  }

  /**
* Prepares the Authorization header
*
* @return void prepared authorization header is stored in a class variables
*/
  private function prepare_auth_header() {
    $this->headers = array();
    uksort($this->auth_params, 'strcmp');
    foreach ($this->auth_params as $k => $v) {
      $kv[] = "{$k}=\"{$v}\"";
    }
    $this->auth_header = 'OAuth ' . implode(', ', $kv);
    $this->headers[] = 'Authorization: ' . $this->auth_header;
  }

  /**
* Signs the request and adds the OAuth signature. This runs all the request
* parameter preparation methods.
*
* @param string $method the HTTP method being used. e.g. POST, GET, HEAD etc
* @param string $url the request URL without query string parameters
* @param array $params the request parameters as an array of key=value pairs
* @param string $useauth whether to use authentication when making the request.
*/
  private function sign($method, $url, $params, $useauth) {
    $this->prepare_method($method);
    $this->prepare_url($url);
    $this->prepare_params($params);

    // we don't sign anything is we're not using auth
    if ($useauth) {
      $this->prepare_base_string();
      $this->prepare_signing_key();

      $this->auth_params['oauth_signature'] = $this->safe_encode(
        base64_encode(
          hash_hmac(
            'sha1', $this->base_string, $this->signing_key, true
      )));

      $this->prepare_auth_header();
    }
  }

  /**
* Make an HTTP request using this library. This method doesn't return anything.
* Instead the response should be inspected directly.
*
* @param string $method the HTTP method being used. e.g. POST, GET, HEAD etc
* @param string $url the request URL without query string parameters
* @param array $params the request parameters as an array of key=value pairs
* @param string $useauth whether to use authentication when making the request. Default true.
* @param string $multipart whether this request contains multipart data. Default false
*/
  function request($method, $url, $params=array(), $useauth=true, $multipart=false) {
    $this->config['multipart'] = $multipart;

    $this->create_nonce();
    $this->create_timestamp();

    $this->sign($method, $url, $params, $useauth);
    $this->curlit($multipart);
  }

  /**
* Make an HTTP request using this library. This method is different to 'request'
* because on a 401 error it will retry the request.
*
* When a 401 error is returned it is possible the timestamp of the client is
* too different to that of the API server. In this situation it is recommended
* the request is retried with the OAuth timestamp set to the same as the API
* server. This method will automatically try that technique.
*
* This method doesn't return anything. Instead the response should be
* inspected directly.
*
* @param string $method the HTTP method being used. e.g. POST, GET, HEAD etc
* @param string $url the request URL without query string parameters
* @param array $params the request parameters as an array of key=value pairs
* @param string $useauth whether to use authentication when making the request. Default true.
* @param string $multipart whether this request contains multipart data. Default false
*/
  function auto_fix_time_request($method, $url, $params=array(), $useauth=true, $multipart=false) {
    $this->request($method, $url, $params, $useauth, $multipart);

    // if we're not doing auth the timestamp isn't important
    if ( ! $useauth)
      return;

    // some error that isn't a 401
    if ($this->response['code'] != 401)
      return;

    // some error that is a 401 but isn't because the OAuth token and signature are incorrect
    // TODO: this check is horrid but helps avoid requesting twice when the username and password are wrong
    if (stripos($this->response['response'], 'password') !== false)
     return;

    // force the timestamp to be the same as the Twitter servers, and re-request
    $this->auto_fixed_time = true;
    $this->config['force_timestamp'] = true;
    $this->config['timestamp'] = strtotime($this->response['headers']['date']);
    $this->request($method, $url, $params, $useauth, $multipart);
  }

  /**
* Make a long poll HTTP request using this library. This method is
* different to the other request methods as it isn't supposed to disconnect
*
* Using this method expects a callback which will receive the streaming
* responses.
*
* @param string $method the HTTP method being used. e.g. POST, GET, HEAD etc
* @param string $url the request URL without query string parameters
* @param array $params the request parameters as an array of key=value pairs
* @param string $callback the callback function to stream the buffer to.
*/
  function streaming_request($method, $url, $params=array(), $callback='') {
    if ( ! empty($callback) ) {
      if ( ! function_exists($callback) ) {
        return false;
      }
      $this->config['streaming_callback'] = $callback;
    }
    $this->metrics['start'] = time();
    $this->metrics['interval_start'] = $this->metrics['start'];
    $this->metrics['tweets'] = 0;
    $this->metrics['last_tweets'] = 0;
    $this->metrics['bytes'] = 0;
    $this->metrics['last_bytes'] = 0;
    $this->config['is_streaming'] = true;
    $this->request($method, $url, $params);
  }

  /**
* Handles the updating of the current Streaming API metrics.
*/
  function update_metrics() {
    $now = time();
    if (($this->metrics['interval_start'] + $this->config['streaming_metrics_interval']) > $now)
      return false;

    $this->metrics['tps'] = round( ($this->metrics['tweets'] - $this->metrics['last_tweets']) / $this->config['streaming_metrics_interval'], 2);
    $this->metrics['bps'] = round( ($this->metrics['bytes'] - $this->metrics['last_bytes']) / $this->config['streaming_metrics_interval'], 2);

    $this->metrics['last_bytes'] = $this->metrics['bytes'];
    $this->metrics['last_tweets'] = $this->metrics['tweets'];
    $this->metrics['interval_start'] = $now;
    return $this->metrics;
  }

  /**
* Utility function to create the request URL in the requested format
*
* @param string $request the API method without extension
* @param string $format the format of the response. Default json. Set to an empty string to exclude the format
* @return string the concatenation of the host, API version, API method and format
*/
  function url($request, $format='json') {
    $format = strlen($format) > 0 ? ".$format" : '';
    $proto = $this->config['use_ssl'] ? 'https:/' : 'http:/';

    // backwards compatibility with v0.1
    if (isset($this->config['v']))
      $this->config['host'] = $this->config['host'] . '/' . $this->config['v'];

    return implode('/', array(
      $proto,
      $this->config['host'],
      $request . $format
    ));
  }

  /**
* Utility function to parse the returned curl headers and store them in the
* class array variable.
*
* @param object $ch curl handle
* @param string $header the response headers
* @return the string length of the header
*/
  private function curlHeader($ch, $header) {
    $i = strpos($header, ':');
    if ( ! empty($i) ) {
      $key = str_replace('-', '_', strtolower(substr($header, 0, $i)));
      $value = trim(substr($header, $i + 2));
      $this->response['headers'][$key] = $value;
    }
    return strlen($header);
  }

  /**
* Utility function to parse the returned curl buffer and store them until
* an EOL is found. The buffer for curl is an undefined size so we need
* to collect the content until an EOL is found.
*
* This function calls the previously defined streaming callback method.
*
* @param object $ch curl handle
* @param string $data the current curl buffer
*/
  private function curlWrite($ch, $data) {
    $l = strlen($data);
    if (strpos($data, $this->config['streaming_eol']) === false) {
      $this->buffer .= $data;
      return $l;
    }

    $buffered = explode($this->config['streaming_eol'], $data);
    $content = $this->buffer . $buffered[0];

    $this->metrics['tweets']++;
    $this->metrics['bytes'] += strlen($content);

    if ( ! function_exists($this->config['streaming_callback']))
      return 0;

    $metrics = $this->update_metrics();
    $stop = call_user_func(
      $this->config['streaming_callback'],
      $content,
      strlen($content),
      $metrics
    );
    $this->buffer = $buffered[1];
    if ($stop)
      return 0;

    return $l;
  }

  /**
* Makes a curl request. Takes no parameters as all should have been prepared
* by the request method
*
* @return void response data is stored in the class variable 'response'
*/
  private function curlit() {
    if (@$this->config['prevent_request'])
      return;

    // method handling
    switch ($this->method) {
      case 'GET':
        // GET request so convert the parameters to a querystring
        if ( ! empty($this->request_params)) {
          foreach ($this->request_params as $k => $v) {
            // Multipart params haven't been encoded yet.
            // Not sure why you would do a multipart GET but anyway, here's the support for it
            if ($this->config['multipart']) {
              $params[] = $this->safe_encode($k) . '=' . $this->safe_encode($v);
            } else {
              $params[] = $k . '=' . $v;
            }
          }
          $qs = implode('&', $params);
          $this->url = strlen($qs) > 0 ? $this->url . '?' . $qs : $this->url;
          $this->request_params = array();
        }
        break;
    }

    // configure curl
    $c = curl_init();
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, "themattharris' HTTP Client");
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $this->config['curl_connecttimeout']);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, $this->config['curl_timeout']);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, TRUE);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, $this->config['curl_ssl_verifypeer']);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION, $this->config['curl_followlocation']);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_URL, $this->url);
    // process the headers
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_HEADERFUNCTION, array($this, 'curlHeader'));
    curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_HEADER, FALSE);
    curl_setopt($c, CURLINFO_HEADER_OUT, true);

    if ($this->config['is_streaming']) {
      // process the body
      $this->response['content-length'] = 0;
      curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 0);
      curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION, array($this, 'curlWrite'));
    }

    switch ($this->method) {
      case 'GET':
        break;
      case 'POST':
        curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_POST, TRUE);
        break;
      default:
        curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST, $this->method);
    }

    if ( ! empty($this->request_params) ) {
      // if not doing multipart we need to implode the parameters
      if ( ! $this->config['multipart'] ) {
        foreach ($this->request_params as $k => $v) {
          $ps[] = "{$k}={$v}";
        }
        $this->request_params = implode('&', $ps);
      }
      curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $this->request_params);
    } else {
      // CURL will set length to -1 when there is no data, which breaks Twitter
      $this->headers[] = 'Content-Type:';
      $this->headers[] = 'Content-Length:';
    }

    // CURL defaults to setting this to Expect: 100-Continue which Twitter rejects
    $this->headers[] = 'Expect:';

    if ( ! empty($this->headers)) {
      curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, $this->headers);
    }

    // do it!
    $response = curl_exec($c);
    $code = curl_getinfo($c, CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE);
    $info = curl_getinfo($c);
    curl_close($c);

    // store the response
    $this->response['code'] = $code;
    $this->response['response'] = $response;
    $this->response['info'] = $info;
  }

  /**
* Debug function for printing the content of an object
*
* @param mixes $obj
*/
  function pr($obj) {
    echo '<pre style="word-wrap: break-word">';
    if ( is_object($obj) )
      print_r($obj);
    elseif ( is_array($obj) )
      print_r($obj);
    else
      echo $obj;
    echo '</pre>';
  }

  /**
* Returns the current URL. This is instead of PHP_SELF which is unsafe
*
* @param bool $dropqs whether to drop the querystring or not. Default true
* @return string the current URL
*/
  function php_self($dropqs=true) {
    $url = sprintf('%s://%s%s',
      $_SERVER['SERVER_PORT'] == 80 ? 'http' : 'https',
      $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'],
      $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']
    );

    $parts = parse_url($url);

    $port = @$parts['port'];
    $scheme = $parts['scheme'];
    $host = $parts['host'];
    $path = @$parts['path'];
    $qs = @$parts['query'];

    $port or $port = ($scheme == 'https') ? '443' : '80';

    if (($scheme == 'https' && $port != '443')
        || ($scheme == 'http' && $port != '80')) {
      $host = "$host:$port";
    }
    $url = "$scheme://$host$path";
    if ( ! $dropqs)
      return "{$url}?{$qs}";
    else
      return $url;
  }

  /**
* Entifies the tweet using the given entities element
*
* @param array $tweet the json converted to normalised array
* @return the tweet text with entities replaced with hyperlinks
*/
  function entify($tweet) {
    $keys = array();
    $replacements = array();
    $is_retweet = false;

    if (isset($tweet['retweeted_status'])) {
      $tweet = $tweet['retweeted_status'];
      $is_retweet = true;
    }

    if (!isset($tweet['entities'])) {
      return $tweet['text'];
    }

    // prepare the entities
    foreach ($tweet['entities'] as $type => $things) {
      foreach ($things as $entity => $value) {
        $tweet_link = "<a href=\"http://twitter.com/{$value['screen_name']}/statuses/{$tweet['id']}\">{$tweet['created_at']}</a>";

        switch ($type) {
          case 'hashtags':
            $href = "<a href=\"http://search.twitter.com/search?q=%23{$value['text']}\">#{$value['text']}</a>";
            break;
          case 'user_mentions':
            $href = "@<a href=\"http://twitter.com/{$value['screen_name']}\" title=\"{$value['name']}\">{$value['screen_name']}</a>";
            break;
          case 'urls':
            $url = empty($value['expanded_url']) ? $value['url'] : $value['expanded_url'];
            $display = isset($value['display_url']) ? $value['display_url'] : str_replace('http://', '', $url);
            // Not all pages are served in UTF-8 so you may need to do this ...
            $display = urldecode(str_replace('%E2%80%A6', '&hellip;', urlencode($display)));
            $href = "<a href=\"{$value['url']}\">{$display}</a>";
            break;
        }
        $keys[$value['indices']['0']] = substr(
          $tweet['text'],
          $value['indices']['0'],
          $value['indices']['1'] - $value['indices']['0']
        );
        $replacements[$value['indices']['0']] = $href;
      }
    }

    ksort($replacements);
    $replacements = array_reverse($replacements, true);
    $entified_tweet = $tweet['text'];
    foreach ($replacements as $k => $v) {
      $entified_tweet = substr_replace($entified_tweet, $v, $k, strlen($keys[$k]));
    }
    return $entified_tweet;
  }
}

?>

#2

URLs are automatically shortened when you post. The short_url_length and short_url_length_https values just tell you how many characters a shortened URL will count against your 140 character post limit, so that you can warn users when they are nearing or exceeding the maximum Tweet length when composing.


#3

#4